Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Nová zásadní monografie projektu: Mezinárodní výzkumy výsledků vzdělávání. Metodologie, přínosy, rizika a příležitosti od Jany Strakové

Publikace (ke stažení zde) Jany Strakové Mezinárodní výzkumy výsledků vzdělávání: Metodologie, přínosy, rizika a příležitosti přináší informace o historickém vývoji mezinárodních výzkumů, jejich metodologii a zpracování získaných dat. Zároveň hledá odpovědi na otázky, do jaké míry je kritika výzkumů oprávněná, co užitečného výzkumy přinesly a kde mohou potenciálně škodit, v čem je možno se z nich poučit a kde je naopak třeba se mít na pozoru.


Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Výsledky výzkumu CLoSE v médiích: Výběr ZŠ se stává normou, děti s horším rodinným zázemím to znevýhodňuje

Výběr ZŠ se stává normou, děti s horším rodinným zázemím to znevýhodňuje
novinky.cz | 4.10.2016 | Rubrika: Věda a školy | Strana: 0 | Autor: fš | Téma: Ostatní

Rodiče, kteří mají možnost, základní školu pro své děti vybírají. Výběr školy se stává normou a to zvýhodňuje děti s lepším rodinným zázemím. Vyplývá to z výzkumu odborníků z Pedagogické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy, jehož výsledky jsou součástí publikace Spravedlivý start. Ta získala ocenění České asociace pedagogického výzkumu.

Název „Spravedlivý start“ naopak poukazuje na jeho absenci, na nerovné šance v předškolním vzdělávání a při přechodu na základní školu. Kniha se zaměřuje na problematiku spravedlivosti v předškolním vzdělávání a přechodu ze školky na základní školu.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

Estimating effects of school quality using multiple proxies. By Nikolas Mittag, Pedro Bernala, Javaeria A. Qureshic in Labour Economics.

The recent literature on school quality has shown that the school a child attends has significant effects on achievement. However, the literature relating different school characteristics to student achievement has produced mixed results, particularly when using student-level data. Using data from the ECLS-K and a proxy variable model that addresses the problem of measuring school quality, we show that significant effects of teaching and resource quality can be detected from student-level data. We find a significant, positive relationship between school quality and student achievement if school characteristics such as class size and teachers' schooling are treated as noisy measures of school quality. However, this effect is not detected when using models which do not account for measurement error in school quality. Our results suggest that conventional approaches underestimate the effect of school quality by about 50%.


Wednesday, August 3, 2016

Alphabetical order effects in school admissions. By Daniel Münich and Štěpán Jurajda in Research Papers in Education

If school admission committees use alphabetically sorted lists of applicants in their evaluations, one’s position in the alphabet according to last name initial may be important in determining access to selective schools. Jurajda and Münich (2010) ‘Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically. Economics of Education Review, 29 (6): 1100–1109’ provide evidence consistent with this hypothesis based on graduation exams taken in grade 13 in the Czech Republic: ‘Z’ students in selective schools had higher exam scores than ‘A’ students. In this paper, we use the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study & Progress in International Reading Literacy Study test scores of 4th graders and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test scores of 8th and 9th graders in the Czech Republic to provide evidence on how the alphabetical sorting outcome uncovered in Jurajda and Münich (2010) ‘Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically. Economics of Education Review, 29 (6): 1100–1109’ arises during early tracking into selective schools. Using the PISA data, we also provide corresponding evidence for Denmark, where sorting into selective schools happens in higher grades.


Gender composition of college graduates by field of study and early fertility. By Alena Bičáková and Štěpán Jurajda in Rev Econ Household


The gender composition of peer groups has been shown to affect marriage market outcomes, but there is no evidence on whether the share of women on college graduates across fields of study affects graduates’ fertility, even though the college field-of-study peer group is a natural source of potential mating partners. We use variation in gender shares by fields of study implied by the recent expansion of college education in 19 European countries, and a difference-in-differences research design, to show that the share of women in study peer groups does not drive early fertility. When there are few available potential partners in one’s field of study, endogamous fertility by college graduates from the same field of study is lower, as expected, but non-endogamous fertility compensates for this effect for both genders. This compensation, however, comes at the cost of increasing the probability of parenting with a less-than-college educated spouse.
 
 

Field-of-study homogamy: Evidence from the EU: new research spin-off blog from Alena Bičáková and Štěpán Jurajda

Positive assortative matching between college graduates has been well documented in marriage markets. Using European survey data, this column explores whether graduates form couples within their field of study. A third of married or cohabiting graduate couples both studied within the same field. These results are driven in part by assortative matching, and there are notable differences across fields of study as well as across countries.

Read more at VOX

Figure 1. The Gender Gap Index and FSH-potential utilisation rate (H/H(P))
 Note: The Gender Gap Index, generated by the World Economic Forum, reflects economic and political opportunities, education, and well-being for women. The highest possible GGI score is 1 (equality) and the lowest possible score is 0 (inequality).

Can War Foster Cooperation? MIchal Bauer in Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 30, Number 3—Summer 2016—Pages 249–274

New review paper in highly internationally recognized review journal by Michal Bauer et al. Reviewing the existing research in given are they conclude that: 

The core empirical finding we identify—that exposure to wartime conflict fosters cooperative behavior—resonates with the experience of rapid postwar political, social, and economic recovery in many war-torn societies, as well as their tendency to implement egalitarian social policies, including progressive taxation and gender equality reforms (Tripp 2015; Scheve and Stasavage 2010, 2012). While the human costs of war are horrific, there may at least be some reason for optimism once the violence ends.